Analogy - The cognitive process of applying information and associations from one subject to another.
Metaphor - Using the attributes of one subject to illuminate or expand upon the character of another, unrelated subject.
Target - The subject to which attributes are ascribed.
Source - The subject from which the attributes are borrowed.
Ground - The similarities between target and source.
Tension - The dissimilarities between target and source.
Conceit - An extended metaphor with multiple levels of comparison.